100 and forty years in the past this month, the Scottish port of Eyemouth suffered Britain’s worst ever fishing catastrophe, when 189 males and boys perished on what locals nonetheless name Black Friday. Brian W Lavery recollects the tragedy
Eyemouth’s fishermen have been famend as takers of nice dangers and getters of nice rewards.
With the nineteenth century’s industrialisation and an affordable and plentiful provide of fish, individuals flocked to this Scottish east coast city. Its inhabitants grew from 500 to three,000. Eyemouth was booming.
However all by the spring and summer season of 1881, ferocious storms battered the east coast, in order that even Eyemouth males dared not go away port. For days and weeks on finish throughout that interval, their vessels remained tied up.
So when a relaxed day dawned, the fleet determined to take its probability. There could have been those that thought higher of it, however the custom in Eyemouth was that if one boat was going out, all went out.
However on Friday, 14 October, 1881, the courageous males of this east coast fishing port took one threat too many.
There have been two warnings – one which they didn’t heed, and one about which they knew nothing.
The pier-head barometer – which had typically been ignored up to now – forecast a sudden change for the more severe within the climate. And within the native publish workplace, a telegram warning of gales coming their method arrived too late.
Postmaster John Campbell McRae acquired the telegram from Yarmouth, the place 56 Eyemouth males had been fishing in Norfolk for the late herring.
However even when he had rushed it to the pier – which he didn’t – he wouldn’t have been capable of get the message delivered in time.
As the lads of Eyemouth put to sea, many different Scottish ports like Dunbar, Anstruther, Fraserburgh and Wick stayed put. But it surely was extra than simply doggedness that made Eyemouth’s fleet sail right into a horrible destiny that Friday. The lads have been pushed as a lot by financial necessity as they have been by braveness.
For in contrast to these different ports, they’d not acquired large grants and funding from the Fisheries Boards and Whitehall, regardless of being one of many greatest fleets within the nation.
Though fishing ports up and down the east coast had acquired authorities support to enhance their harbours, the port at Eyemouth remained harmful.
One more reason lay with the kirk. The Church of Scotland had claimed a ‘tithe’ (one-tenth) of the lads’s revenue for a few years.
After a fierce marketing campaign led by Eyemouth fisherman Willie Spears, it was agreed that the lads may ‘purchase out’ the tithe for £2,000 – greater than £250,000 in right this moment’s cash. It was not till 1878 that the mortgage the lads took out to pay the kirk was cleared.
With that background, the spring and summer season storms of 1881 and the starvation of their bairns, it’s clear why the lads ignored the barometer.
The Instances of 25 October, 1881 reported: “The storm sign was additionally hoisted, and thus far there had actually been some warning given of the approaching strife. It’s even mentioned that the harbour grasp cautioned the fishermen towards going out.
“However the males had been mendacity in enforced idleness for a number of days, and plenty of of them have been anxious to earn a number of shillings for his or her households.
“Moreover, the fish have been recognized to be plentiful close to the coast; and tempted by the prospect of huge hauls, and trusting their studying of the sky quite than the barometric indications, the fleet of good-looking decked fishing boats put out to sea.”
That gamble was to have catastrophic penalties. A survivor later instructed the Instances: “The storm and darkness got here on like a clap of the hand.” Hurricane-force winds, lashing rain, looming darkish clouds and large waves brought about chaos.
The tempest struck at midday, and because the Eyemouth fleet tried a touch for dwelling, lots of the open- decked crusing keel-boats foundered in mountainous seas in sight of the households nonetheless ashore. They might solely watch helplessly as a few of the boats have been smashed to items on the rocks as they tried to succeed in the harbour. A complete of 189 males and boys, lots of them from the identical households, perished that day. Black Friday ripped the center out of Eyemouth.
The storm left behind it 93 widows and 267 fatherless youngsters.
Of the 189 who died, 129 have been from Eyemouth, 24 from Burnmouth, 11 from Cove and three from Coldingham, all close by.
However on the Sabbath that week, as a memorial service was being ready, one of many vessels regarded as misplaced made a dramatic return.
The Instances reported: “About six o’clock yesterday [Sunday] morning, whereas however a number of individuals have been stirring, the Ariel Gazelle got here into harbour, along with her crew of seven males all protected.
“They’d been at sea for about 40 hours, and had been blown so far as the Dogger Financial institution, a sandbank within the centre of the North Sea, intermediate between the shores of England and Denmark.
“On reaching port the lads have been virtually utterly exhausted by chilly and starvation.”
It was mentioned that the boat’s skipper needed to have his palms prised from the tiller. The crew needed to be helped off the vessel. As they climbed gingerly onto the ladders after which onto dry land, they have been mobbed by a surging crowd. They have been taken to an area pub to be revived.
One crewman later mentioned he was ‘ashamed to be protected and sound’ as he ‘handed amongst these ladies who had hoped that our boat would have proved to have been their husband’s or their son’s boat’.
The skipper, Alex Burgon, was later chief mourner on the funeral of his son John, who had perished on the sail-keel Concord.
Newspapers have been late in protecting the story as lots of them did not get their ‘information parcels’ due to trains being delayed by gale harm that swept the nation.
However quickly the entire nation had heard of the catastrophe and a public subscription was arrange. Throughout the nation there have been fundraising live shows and sports activities occasions.
Native authorities from fishing and non-fishing cities contributed. Even Queen Victoria despatched £100 to start out the fund – equal to greater than £10,000 right this moment.
The unique attraction for £25,000 was greater than doubled to round £50,000 – £6m at current charges. Cash got here pouring in after the Queen’s donation, starting from firms sending massive cheques to a shilling – ‘a widow’s mite reward.’
The Ariel Gazelle’s shock return led to native males holding watches for weeks to come back, and Royal Navy ships scouring the ocean from the Tyne to Montrose.
The hope of ‘stranger issues occur at sea’ was stretched to the restrict – however there have been to be no additional miracles.
Representatives from the kids’s charity Quarrier’s Properties got here to Eyemouth and supplied to take these youngsters orphaned on Black Friday, solely to be instructed within the firmest of phrases that: “We’ll maintain oor ain bairns for the sake of oor future.”
In the present day, there could be groups of counsellors and different assist providers to assist ease the searing ache of those that misplaced their family members on that day – however they needed to keep it up as greatest they may.
There was financial assist and sympathy from everywhere in the nation, however the neighborhood needed to heal itself, as all communities like this had all the time completed.
Some didn’t survive. There was a report of 1 lady so overcome that she died of grief a day after the storm. Willie Spears, the person who led the marketing campaign towards the tithe to the kirk, was ashore when the catastrophe struck. He fell into alcoholism and extreme psychological sickness, gave all his cash away to the widows and orphans, and destroyed himself with drink.
However for others, life needed to go on. Simply 17 days after Black Friday, the Eyemouth fleet – fewer by 19 boats and 129 males – took to the ocean once more.
They have been led out by the Ariel Gazelle.
This story was taken from the newest subject of Fishing Information. For extra up-to-date and in-depth stories on the UK and Irish industrial fishing sector, subscribe to Fishing Information here or purchase the newest single subject for simply £3.30 here.