Conservation

Fly Fishing Conservation: “Beyond Data”

Bob Mallard photograph

Editor’s Notice: This week we introduce a brand new collection on fly fishing conservation.  First, we take a look at research and surveys, and about performing on what we study. This collection seems with the assist of Swift Fly Fishing, makers of Epic Fly Rods.

We’ve all seen it, giant mammals with digital collars or ear tags, birds with leg bands, and fish with small antennas protruding of their bellies or clipped fins. Or possibly you’ve found one of many many fish weirs, stationary gillnets, fish traps, or fish counting stations strewn throughout our aquatic panorama.

You could have seen scientists driving backcountry roads hanging out the window waving what seems like an outdated TV antenna round, making an attempt to find radio tagged animals. Or people strolling alongside rivers with the identical gear making an attempt to pinpoint the placement of a single fish. Or wader-clad groups slogging down our streams with what seem like Ghost Buster packs and carrying nets, buckets, and clipboards.

A few of you’ve gotten even been concerned in so-called “citizen science” tasks the place state fish and recreation businesses ship sportsmen, birders, and others afield to gather information by way of fishing, looking, scat and hair assortment, or visible contact. These volunteers are doing what they’ll to attempt to assist handle and preserve our fish and wildlife.

As a nonscientist, when it got here to fish and wildlife research my assumption was all the time that if it wasn’t useful, and actually vital, we wouldn’t do it. Nevertheless, after 20 years within the native fish conservation trenches, sadly, I’ve realized this isn’t all the time the case.

A lot of what I’ve seen afield falls beneath what you might pretty name, evaluation/paralysis. Some research go on far longer than wanted, turning into as a lot a behavior as they’re a useful gizmo. And plenty of research go on yr after yr with little or no motion taken, even when the info counsel in any other case.

To be clear, a lot of what we all know right this moment about fish and wildlife is the results of research and surveys, a lot of which concerned the instruments and techniques famous above. Radio-telemetry know-how has superior to some extent the place satellites can be utilized to trace wildlife throughout a nearly limitless space. Passive Built-in Transponder, or PIT tags can be utilized along side fastened readers to document fish motion with out us even being there.

Too A lot Information?

At one level, it appeared like one out of ten animals I noticed in Yellowstone Nationwide Park have been carrying radio collars. Elk, bear, and wolves, all strolling round one of many wildest locations in America wanting like escaped household pets. This beckoned the query, How a lot information is sufficient information, and have been we nonetheless studying sufficient to warrant this aesthetic degradation of America’s final finest place?

Unclear Targets and Targets…

Sadly, I’ve discovered that some research don’t have clear objectives and targets. And others are too imprecise to be of any actual good. For instance, the next comes from the Maine Audubon web site and is expounded to a volunteer citizen science research. Whereas it reads effectively, it lacks specifics:

“The data collected by way of the Brook Trout Survey by volunteer anglers – verified by biologists – will assist inform future fisheries administration selections. This information will probably be used to set coverage and implement efficient conservation methods to guard, restore, and improve native Japanese Brook Trout populations in Maine.”

You will need to observe that within the early phases of the challenge, the objectives have been very particular: Inclusion within the State Heritage Fish program. This was modified because it turned clear that they may not fulfill the promise as a result of resistance from Maine Division of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife in regard to including new waters.

Fly Fishing Conservation Brook Trout

Bob Mallard photograph

Unfulfilled Guarantees…

The challenge famous above has been happening for almost a decade. To this point, the one “administration selections” which were made are these required beneath state legislation, and even this has been random and arbitrary. The next comes from a challenge publication:

“[The volunteers] discovered brook trout in 82 ponds and 90 streams; MDIFW confirmed breeding populations of brook trout in 58 of these ponds and added 30 of them to the State Heritage Fish checklist.”

The principles for creating the preliminary lists of State Heritage Fish waters have been clear and easy: Current and never stocked in twenty-five years or extra. Since then the factors for including new waters has been watered down to incorporate year-round presence, all age lessons, and so on., leaving many waters that may have been protected had they been recognized initially, unprotected.

Social Wishes Trump Science…

New Hampshire Fish and Sport has been learning the Wildcat River, one in every of solely two Wild and Scenic Rivers within the state, for a number of years now. The objective was to find out whether or not it ought to be designated as a Wild Trout Administration water and guarded accordingly.

Based mostly on information that confirmed a wild trout biomass effectively in extra of the Wild Trout Administration inclusion standards, the state agreed to cease stocking above a pure falls. Sadly, whereas the info confirmed just about the identical factor beneath the falls, they refused to cease stocking there.

As for Wild Trout Administration designation, despite the fact that the biomass far exceeds the inclusion standards, no motion has been taken by Fish and Sport citing resistance from “a few of the TU members, locals and fish and recreation membership.”

Ignoring Science…

Per a 2015 New Hampshire Division of Environmental Companies doc: “The NH Fish and Sport Division has recognized the Ham Department River as a big fishery as a result of it helps native wild brook trout… it seems that wild brook trout populations are sustained all through the watershed…” Sadly, as of 2019 it had not acquired Wild Trout Administration designation and the river was nonetheless being stocked.

Within the early 2000s, Harris Dam on the higher Kennebec River in Maine got here up for relicensing. With each day flows starting from 140cfs to six,000cfs in assist of energy technology and whitewater rafting, it will be arduous to discover a dam that altered the aquatic surroundings extra.

Throughout relicensing, industry-paid biologists tagged fish, chased them across the river, recorded their actions, and launched an intensive report on their findings. The research confirmed what most of us already knew, the river was house to wild native brook trout and so they used one stream greater than some other for spawning.

Conversely, it stated that the radically fluctuating flows didn’t have a lot of an impact on the fish, they merely moved round or hunkered down when the water bumped up. This was primarily based solely on what we knew proper then, and herein lies the issue – what would the wild native brook trout inhabitants be like if the flows have been extra steady and pure?

Ultimately we obtained a compromise in regard to minimal circulation restrictions, rising it from 140cfs to 300cfs, which elevated, however not essentially doubled the holding capability of the river as low circulation length is for much longer than excessive circulation durations, whereas additionally lessening the severity of the circulation fluctuations to some extent.

On a typical day, the dam releases a mean of round 1,000cfs of water. In fact, this doesn’t think about the impression of the upstream impoundments which maintain again water which might in any other case flush by way of the system throughout high-water occasions. Based mostly on what USFWS calls “rule of thumb,” pure circulation could be within the 500-700cfs vary, which sounds cheap.

Having the minimal circulation at what may very well be simply 50% of pure circulation just isn’t good science. However it’s good for energy corporations, the whitewater rafting {industry}, and wading anglers who feared that greater flows may impede their means to fish, and that’s why it’s allowed to occur. As is usually the case, the fish are those that pay the value.

Killing Fish Simply to Verify They’re There…

Maine Division of Inland Fisheries and Wildlife routinely makes use of deadly gillnets to survey wild native fish populations, but not often modifications how the water in query is managed no matter what they discover. Just lately, they killed six uncommon Arctic charr from Inexperienced Lake, a water with what they classify as a “very low” abundance of such, and the place no charr had been confirmed in almost 20 years.

Inexperienced Lake is at present being stocking with nonnative lake trout, the identical species blamed for the demise of Arctic charr in New Hampshire and Vermont. The lake trout are protected with a 1-fish 23-inch restrict. And no motion has been taken to guard what is probably going a relict inhabitants of uncommon fish, and one in every of solely twelve, and presumably eleven viable populations remaining within the contiguous United States.

Whereas my worldview is admittedly northeast centric, I hear the identical issues from everywhere in the nation. Surveys with out objectives, information that’s ignored, and insurance policies and packages which are arbitrarily imposed primarily based on social preferences not science. If we aren’t going to behave, why proceed to waste money and time accumulating information we aren’t going to make use of? And why kill fish simply to show they’re there?

 

This text seems with the assist of Swift Fly Fishing, makers of Epic Fly Rods.

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